Data Privacy or Information privacy is a part of the data protection area that deals with the proper handling of data focusing on compliance with data protection regulations. Data Privacy is centered around how data should be collected, stored, managed, and shared with any third parties, as well as compliance with the applicable privacy laws (such as California Consumer Privacy Act CCPA or General Data Protection Regulation GDPR)
Data governance signifies how businesses intend to use data. According to the Data Governance Institute, which provides vendor-neutral best practices and guidance, adopting a governance framework incorporating best practices will help stakeholders across any organization identify, meet, and enforce their information needs.
Data compliance refers to the specific policies and procedures an organization adopts to comply with applicable data privacy laws, regulations, industry standards, and internal policies. Compliance measures include categorizing the types of data that need protection and specifying what steps to take concerning each data type under the applicable rule.
Consent is an individual’s permission to process that person’s information in a specific way. What constitutes consent depends upon the applicable rule; in some cases, consent must be explicit or even in writing. In other cases, consent can be assumed or inferred based on a person’s action or even based on a person’s inaction (for example, in the case of “opt-out consent”).
Opt in versus opt out is a common dichotomy for understanding different types of consent. If explicit consent is required before a business is permitted to process a person’s information, that is referred to as “opt-in” consent (i.e., you can’t use the person’s information until they opt in). For instance, you opt into data processing when you sign up for an online service and agree to have your data collected and processed in specific ways. By contrast, some rules require only “opt-out” consent. That means anyone is permitted to use your information until you tell them not to. In the opt-out context, a business may collect information about people, but is required to delete the information regarding any person who contacts the business to opt out.
PI, PII, and personal data are three phrases that all mean the same thing, although the specific meaning depends upon the specific law, rule, or regulation you are talking about. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has a specific definition of “personal data” that is different from the California Consumer Privacy Act’s (CCPA) definition. As a broad concept, each of these terms refers to information specifically about an individual but each law, rule, or regulation addressing personal information will have its own definition with specific exclusions and exceptions that must be carefully considered.
In short, a Consent Management Platform (CMP) acts as a mediator between a website visitor and the services on the website that might collect their personal data via cookies for various reasons such as marketing, social sharing and statistics.
Personal data revealing racial or ethnic origin. Political opinions. Religious or philosophical beliefs. Trade union membership. Genetic data and biometric data processed for the purpose of uniquely identifying a natural person. Data concerning health.
When data that should be kept private gets in the wrong hands, bad things can happen. A data breach at a government agency can, for example, put top secret information in the hands of an enemy state. A breach at a corporation can put proprietary data in the hands of a competitor.
Data Subject Access Requests (DSARs) give individuals (also known as data subjects) the right to discover what data an organization is holding about them, why they are holding that data and who else their data and other personal information is disclosed to.
Publicly available information generally means information that can be found in public sources and is therefore presumed not to be private for purposes of privacy laws. What this means in a particular case depends on the law, rule, or regulation at issue. Some privacy laws exclude publicly available information from their scope, but others do not. Different laws may include varying definitions.
Some privacy laws, rules, and regulations define a subset of personal information as “sensitive” personal information and subject this typeof information to more stringent obligations. For example, personal information may be defined to include all information about a person, but information about the person’s health history is deemed sensitive personal information. Sensitive personal information can include information about a person’s race, ethnic origin, religious beliefs, marital status, age, citizenship, immigration status, mental or physical health condition or diagnosis, sexual orientation, political opinions, criminal history, account numbers, Social Security number, genetic information, or biometric information. Some privacy rules may permit the processing of personal information generally with only opt-out consent, whereas the processing of sensitive personal information may require opt-in consent.
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